Earth's astonishing diversity, intricacy, and beauty inspires human imagination. Whether it is the 17,000 year-old cave paintings of bison at Lascaux, France, Igor Stravinsky’s orchestration of nature in the Rite of Spring, or Ansel Adam’s breathtaking photographs of California’s Yosemite National Park, human beings have always found Earth an inexhaustible source of creative inspiration.
Astronauts who have seen our planet from space are particularly inspired by Earth. For more than four decades, astronauts from many countries and backgrounds have experienced the so-called ‘overview effect’ – a feeling of intense awe when looking down on Earth and seeing its luminous coloration and pulsating activity – all thriving under a thin band of life-giving atmosphere.
Something else accompanies this astounding beauty. The astronauts can also see a wounded Earth – a planet stressed by areas of dead ocean water, deforested land, eroded soil and polluted air. After seeing both the beauty and the wounds, the astronauts return home with a heightened sense of responsibility for the planet and a reinvigorated motivation to heal the Earth.
Environmental Science, Imagination, and Pedagogy
Healing Earth is an environmental science e-textbook written by women and men who share this awe and concern for the natural world. We are an international group of scientists and humanists who imagine—and work for—a cleaner and healthier planet. We are delighted you are exploring Healing Earth and we invite you to join your hopes for a healthy planet with ours.
Today, the environment faces threats unprecedented in human history. These challenges include decreasing biodiversity, shrinking natural resources, the transition to renewable energy sources, diminishing fresh water supplies, declining food quality and availability, and a changing global climate. Each of these threats are addressed in Healing Earth’s six chapters covering biodiversity, natural resources, energy, water, food, and climate change. The authors of Healing Earth believe that people everywhere need accessible and understandable scientific knowledge to meet today's environmental challenges. The first aim of Healing Earth is to provide this science knowledge.
However, scientific knowledge is not enough to heal the Earth. If we truly value our planet, we must also look closely at our personal lifestyle choices and our public policies and ask: which choices and policies best promote the well-being of the natural world and the human beings who depend upon it? This is a moral question that requires attention to ethics. The second aim of Healing Earth is to help you think ethically as you study environmental science, to reflect on the major moral questions in each chapter topic from the standpoint of a coherent environmental ethic.
When we begin thinking carefully about environmental ethics, we quickly realize that diverse points of view exist on almost every moral question--and that the diversity can exist not only between people, but also within ourselves. Thinking through an ethical decision with so many alternative viewpoints challenges us to identify what we truly believe about the natural world and our place in it. Do you think of the natural world as essentially a storehouse of material goods for your use and enjoyment? Or, do you have another view of the natural world? When you consider the meaning of your life do you see it as basically a competition with other human beings to amass and consume as many material goods as you possibly can? Or, do you have another view of your life’s meaning?
When we make ethical decisions we show forth our core beliefs about the world and about ourselves. These deep, sometimes unselfconscious, convictions make up your inner spirit, or spirituality. The third aim of Healing Earth is to help you identify your spirituality as you study environmental science; that is, to help you use the study of Earth’s structures, processes, and life forms to also raise questions in your own mind about what you see as the meaning of the natural world that you are studying and the meaning of your life within it.
Ethics and spirituality help motivate action, but they are not themselves actions that heal the Earth. The movement to be an agent of change in the world asks us to identify concrete environmental problems in our communities, gather information, analyze data, select responses, and act. The fourth aim of Healing Earth is to inform your preparations for action by alerting you to environmental activities taking place in different parts of the world and suggest actions you might consider in your own community.
According to ecologist and theologian Thomas Berry, the gravity of today’s environmental challenges requires that we become ‘integral ecologists’--people with enough scientific knowledge, ethical clarity, and spiritual awareness to act wisely for the well-being of Earth and all its forms of life.1 By combining science, ethics, spirituality, and action, Healing Earth offers you a unique, ‘integral’ education in environmental science.
This integral approach is also consistent with the teaching tradition of Healing Earth’s sponsoring organization, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534, the Jesuits are a religious community of men within the Roman Catholic Church who work in many fields, especially education (primary schools, secondary schools, colleges, and universities worldwide), spiritual direction, and the promotion of social justice.
A hallmark of the Jesuit teaching tradition is the method of Ignatian Pedagogy. This method brings teachers and students together in “a constant interplay of experience, reflection, and action.”2 In practice, this means students begin exploring a subject by staying alert to how their own experience relates to the subject under study. Next, teachers guide students in reflecting on the value and meaning of the subject under study, as well as the subject’s relationship to other facets of human knowledge and activity. Finally, students are challenged to move from knowledge to action; that is, to take what they have learned and use it to improve the world around them. But Ignatian Pedagogy does not end there. Acting in the world sheds new light on the subject. So, students must begin the circle again: take their experience and rethink the subject, reflect again on its value and meaning of the subject, and adjust action if necessary on the basis of new knowledge. In this way, Ignatian Pedagogy aims to educate the “whole person”, forming a bright and imaginative “life-long learner”.
Healing Earth adapts the basic Ignatian Pedagogy framework for use in studying environmental science. You are first invited to “see scientifically" and relate what you see to your own experience. Next, you are asked to reflect on the values (“evaluate ethically”) and meaning (“reflect spiritually”) that emerge in the study of environmental science. Finally, you are challenged to take the knowledge you have gained and act to heal the Earth (“act effectively”). Each chapter of Healing Earth is designed to help you build these four skills in sequence.
Science, Ethics, Spirituality, and Action
Because Healing Earth presents environmental ethics in a unique way, it is important that you have a clear sense of what science, ethics, spirituality, and action mean in the textbook. In this section we offer a more detailed description of these four fundamental concepts. When you begin reading each Healing Earth chapter, you may find it helpful to return to this section for review.
Science is a systematic way to study the structures and processes of the natural world. Researchers acquire scientific knowledge using the scientific method. The scientific method follows these steps:
- Ask a question about nature.
- Do background research and observation.
- Construct a hypothesis (an educated guess).
- Test the hypothesis by experimentation.
- Analyze the data and draw a conclusion.
- Communicate the results and ask the next question.
Scientists start with a feature of the world that interests them and that gives rise to a question they would like to research. Scientists then carefully observe this feature, gather and record preliminary data, and construct a hypothesis that is a testable answer to the question they are asking.
See this short video for an example of how to use the scientific method.
Scientists then test the hypothesis with a series of experiments by following an orderly procedure carried out to verify or refute the hypothesis. The procedure holds all variables constant but the one being tested. Scientists then analyze the results and a conclusion is drawn as to whether the hypothesis is correct or incorrect. By communicating their findings in books and journals, scientists discover whether the results of their experiments are consistent with the findings of other scientists.
If further experiments reconfirm a scientist’s hypothesis, the finding may be proposed as a scientific fact. Over time, scientists may build a theory out of facts that have been confirmed through multiple experiments by many different scientists. Scientific theories explain the relationship among many features of the natural world, such as Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution or Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Here again, scientists communicate their theories to other scientists so that their research can be validated or challenged.
All the scientific information communicated in Healing Earth is based on tested observations that have led to facts and theories. These facts and theories have been recognized, continually explored, and re-tested by scientists worldwide.
Healing Earth is a textbook in environmental science. This means that it studies the structures and processes of the natural world and the impact human beings have on them. To understand how the natural world functions, environmental scientists study ecology, the branch of science that investigates the many intricate and complex relationships that exist between organisms and their physical environment.
Environmental scientists use their knowledge of ecology to develop solutions to environmental problems. Because these problems are linked to human actions in society, environmental scientists must also investigate how human social systems and the Earth’s ecosystems interact. For example, how does a society’s method of economic production and consumption impact the environment? Or, what are the environmental effects of a society’s public policy regarding waste disposal? Economics and politics are just two of the social systems that environmental scientists must engage in order to help solve environmental problems. Others include public health, business, education, and culture. Environmental science is, therefore, an interdisciplinary field of study with ecology at its center.
Ethics is the study and practice of actions that contribute to the well-being of humans, human societies, and the natural world. Healing Earth takes the approach that certain basic goods are needed for the well-being of human beings, the natural world, and human society.
Among a human being’s basic goods are those enabling physical survival (e.g. air, food, water, shelter, medical care, security) and personal growth (e.g. positive human relationships, occupation, social participation, enjoyment of the natural world). As the Healing Earth chapters will explain, basic goods for the natural world include species diversity, abundant natural resources, human use of renewable energy sources, clean water, organic food production, and mitigation of global climate change. The basic goods for a human society are structures and processes of political, economic, and cultural life that make it possible for human beings and the natural world to thrive together.
Healing Earth focuses on the natural world and asks: What are the best ethical responses we can make to the moral problems we face today due to declining biodiversity, fossil fuel extraction, natural resource depletion, water shortages, inadequate food systems, natural resource depletion, and climate change?
Healing Earth provides environmental ethic to help you think through the moral problems raised in each chapter. This ethic has three ethical foundations from which are derived three sets of ethical norms.
Three Ethical Foundations
The meaning of intrinsic value and key points in the debate over whether nature has intrinsic value is discussed in this short paper.
The first foundation of Healing Earth’s environmental ethic is the precept that nature has intrinsic value. This means that the natural world has value in itself, that it does not require human need or desire to give it value. For example, a honeybee has value as a creature of nature whether it serves the human needs or not.
The second ethical foundation in Healing Earth is the precept that nature has instrumental value. This means that the natural world has resources that are useful to the well-being of all creatures on Earth. Again, as an example, nearly one third of all plants and plant products necessary for human survival depend on honeybee pollination and humans have been utilizing honeybees for this purpose for centuries.
Though nature has instrumental value, it is critically important that we not see this as nature’s first and only value. Many of the environmental problems we face today are the result of actions taken by people who disregard nature’s intrinsic value and see nature as only a store for satisfying human wants and needs. This view too often leads to the exploitation of Earth’s resources and the destruction of ecosystems.
The third foundation of Healing Earth’s ethic is the value of environmental sustainability. By this precept we mean that a natural resource may be used only if it will 1) remain healthy and capable of performing its function for the ecosystem within which it exists and 2) be plentiful enough to meet the reasonable needs of future human generations. Here again, for example, when people respect the instrumental value of the honeybee by using it sustainably, they are respecting its intrinsic value.
Three Sets of Ethical Norms
The three ethical foundations of intrinsic value, instrumental value, and environmental sustainability support three sets of ethical norms that provide more specific guidelines for making moral decisions. The three sets of ethical norms include moral principles, moral goals, and moral virtues.
Moral principles are standards that help us decide which of our actions contribute to or detract from the well-being of human beings, human societies, and the natural world. Healing Earth presents six moral principles that guide our actions in the natural world.
- Care for creation
- Human dignity and human rights
- Common good
- Universal destination of goods
- Preferential option for the poor
Definitions of these principles are given below. The meaning and application of all six principles receive careful attention in each Healing Earth chapter.
Care for Creation: the moral principle that calls us to care for the Earth in a way that preserves and protects the integrity of the natural world while making its fruits available for the legitimate needs of human beings.
Human Dignity and Human Rights: the moral quality of human personhood by virtue of one’s body, mind, and soul, and expressed in human autonomy, equality, freedom, sociality, and sacrality, and rights -- these last being moral powers of human personhood that call for a person or group’s immunity from unjust harm (e.g. the right not to have my bodily integrity abused, the right not to have my expression of ideas suppressed, the right not to have my practice of religion forbidden) and entitlement to basic goods necessary for life (e.g. my right to food, my right to shelter, my right to health care).
Common Good: the sum total of those conditions of the natural world and of humanity’s physical, social, and spiritual life which allow groups and their individual members the relatively free and equal ability to achieve a fulfilled life.
Universal Destination of Goods: the moral principle that the availability, or 'destination', of goods necessary for human life is 'universal'; that is, basic goods such as water, food, air, land, shelter and clothing cannot be withheld from human beings who are in absolute need.
Preferential Option for the Poor: the moral principle that people in absolute need of the basic goods of life (e.g. water, food, air, land, shelter, clothing) should be given priority in caregiving.
Subsidiarity: the moral principle that requires community problems to be resolved at the appropriate level. This means that proposed solutions to community problems should be neither overly-localized if the problem requires regional, state, or international assistance, nor overly-globalized if the problem can be handled at the state, regional, or community level.
Moral principles guide our actions toward the accomplishment of moral goals. Healing Earth has seven moral goals, six specific to the environmental topic of each chapter and one overall moral goal embracing human and natural ecology as a whole. Each of the goals listed below are discussed more fully in the Healing Earth chapters.
- Protect and preserve biological diversity.
- Support sustainable and renewable energy sources available to all people.
- Decrease damage done to nature and people by extractive industries.
- Conserve and protect water and its availability to all people and forms of life.
- Make healthy food available to all people.
- Reduce human-induced global climate change.
- Authentic, integral development.
Goal 7, the overall moral goal of Healing Earth’s environmental ethic, relates to the above discussion of human, environmental, and social well-being. Authentic, integral development involves the moral effort of making available the basic goods necessary for human, environmental, and social flourishing.
Moral virtues are features of a person’s character that contribute to the well-being of humans, human societies, and the natural world. Virtues are developed in our character through practice and commitment. A virtuous person pursues moral goals using moral principles as a compass. Throughout the textbook, the authors will discuss six moral virtues in reference to human life in the natural world.
- Gratitude for the existence, beauty, and resources of the natural world.
- Courage to live sustainably and advocate for the good of the natural world.
- Justice in preserving, restoring, and distributing the goods of the natural world.
- Prudence in decisions that affect the health of the natural world.
- Temperance in consuming the goods of the natural world.
- Loving Generosity in sharing the goods of the natural world.
Lists of moral principles, goals, and virtues are only valuable if they actually help us make just, good, and virtuous decisions. The application of Healing Earth’s environmental ethic is demonstrated in each of the textbook’s six chapters.
Questions to Consider
- Imagine that most people in your society truly respected the intrinsic value of the natural world. How might life in your community be different than it is now?
- How is nature's instrinsic value, instrumental value, and value of sustainability exemplified by the honeybee?
The ethical choices you make reflect what you value. But why do you value one thing over another? Why is a certain thing valuable to you, but not to others in your society? Why do different people value different things?
Our values are connected to our beliefs, the conscious and sometimes unconscious convictions that are at the heart of our individuality and our view of the world. These core convictions express our inner spirit, what can be referred to as our ‘spirituality’.
The seriousness of today’s environmental problems are motivating many people in the world to re-examine their convictions about nature and their role in it. More and more people are finding wisdom in the perspective of naturalists and scientists like Rachel Carson, John Muir, and Jane Goodall who believe that the Earth would be better cared for if more people developed spiritualties that honor the sacred value of nature and cherish nature with heart-felt gratitude. As Carl Sagan and twenty-two prominent world scientists wrote in their 1990 Appeal for Dialogue to the Religious Leaders of the Earth
We understand that what is regarded as sacred is more likely to be treated with care and respect. Our planetary home should be so regarded. Efforts to safeguard and cherish the environment need to be infused with a vision of the sacred.
Read the Appeal for Dialogue to the Religious Leaders of the Earth.
The authors of Healing Earth encourage you to place high value on the natural world and put this value among your deepest convictions. As Thomas Berry writes, “We need to move from a spirituality of alienation from the natural world to a spirituality of intimacy with the natural world.”3 Such an “ecological spirituality” emerges from a sense of awe over the exquisite complexity and balance of nature, evokes a feeling of gratefulness for nature as a sacred gift, and imparts in us a resolve to draw Earth into our circle of care. It is doubtful whether one can even truly know nature from a scientific perspective, much less act to heal the Earth, without a spirituality of this kind.
To aid in developing this spirituality, Healing Earth acquaints you with many ways human beings experience and express this spirituality. One of these ways is in the sense of awe some people feel when they experience an aspect of nature that deeply moves them. They may not link this experience to a god or gods, but this does not make nature any less sacred and spiritually powerful to them.
Many other people participate in an organized religion that encourages spiritual gratitude and love for nature. This does not mean that every person in a given religion has lived up to the ideal of respect for nature, nor that every teaching in a religion’s history has been consistent with this ideal. What it does mean is that, despite failings, the religious traditions of the world’s religions remain true resources for mobilizing a deep sense of gratitude and love of nature among human beings.
Approximately 80% of the people in the world identify themselves as members of a religion, so it is important to learn something about the value that major world religions place on the natural world. In each chapter of Healing Earth you will learn about religious teachings and practices of Indigenous People, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity as they relate to the environmental challenges of our century.
Click here to read the Jesuit document Healing a Broken World that inspired Healing Earth.
From among the religions of the world, Healing Earth gives particular attention to the spiritual traditions of Christianity and the insights of St. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus. Although St. Ignatius lived in the 16th century, his spiritual legacy lives on in his book The Spiritual Exercises and his commitment to "finding God in all things." These ideas have been recently applied to environmental problems in the Jesuit document Healing a Broken World. This document and the Jesuit commitment to environmental justice provided the inspiration and practical support for creating this Healing Earth textbook.
In Healing Earth, the presentation of world religions and basic teachings of Christianity regarding the environment will assist you in exploring your own convictions about the natural world. Some people are very capable of explaining their convictions and values. Other people are less able to speak about these things, but express them more through their actions. In Healing Earth, the authors encourage you to improve your abilities to both explain your convictions about nature in words and express these beliefs in actions.
Questions to Consider
- Imagine a community where nature is honored as something sacred. Do you think life in that community would differ from life in your community? Give examples for your answer.
- Are the religious leaders in your community also leaders in caring for the Earth? If so, how do they connect their religion with care for the Earth? If they are not leaders in caring for the Earth, why do you think that is the case?
If we reach greater understanding of the structures and processes of the natural world, make ecologically sound ethical choices, and develop deep spiritual gratitude for nature, but fail to take action for the good of the Earth, then we are still a step away from solving our environmental problems.
A real love of nature and all its creatures has two aspects: benevolence and beneficence. The word ‘benevolence’ comes from the Latin phrase bene velle, which means to wish well. The word ‘beneficence’ comes from the Latin phrase bene facere, which means to act well. Healing Earth is committed to the idea that true solutions to environmental problems depend on both a benevolent attitude that wishes the Earth well and beneficent actions that make the Earth well. An authentic and active environmental spirituality promotes actions that protect and heal the Earth.
Like science, action for the environment requires a method. Throughout Healing Earth the authors encourage you to follow four steps as you prepare to act for the environment. These steps are:
- See a problem and desire to solve it.
- Gather information and analyze the problem.
- Develop possible responses, imagine outcomes, and select an action in collaboration with others.
- Perform the action and monitor results.
Begin preparing your action by writing an objective statement of a problem that you have observed. For example, you observe that the swimming area in your local lake has been gradually taken over by underwater weeds and dead fish. You want to do something to correct this.
You next gather as much information as you can about the problem. You suspect this problem may be related to fertilizer runoff from farm fields lying along the lake’s shoreline. You might check the quality of the lake water with a water testing kit, visit your local park district or Department of Natural Resources for lake information, and talk to farmers who work along the lake. You analyze the information you have gathered and may draw the conclusion that farm fertilizer runoff is indeed elevating weed growth and fish deaths.
You now consider options for action. Writing an article in your local newspaper that alerts your community to the problem may be a good action, or meeting with city officials to encourage better water regulations, or asking farmers about alternative methods of crop fertilization, or organizing a protest. You evaluate these options and determine which will bring you closest to your goal of a cleaner lake
If, for example, you decide that an article in the local newspaper would be the best first step, you act on your decision by writing the article. You may take further steps, such as distributing copies of the article in your community or preparing to speak publicly about the issue. You monitor the response to your action and then prepare the next step toward your goal. Of course, each of these steps are enriched by collaboration with others on a project.
The study of environmental science in Healing Earth is incomplete without taking action for the environment. Each chapter will give you action suggestions. However, the best actions will be those you develop with others in response to specific problems you see in your own community.
The seriousness of today’s environmental problems calls each of us to deepen our self-knowledge, knowledge of society, communication with others, and awareness of our planet through the resources of science, ethics, spirituality, and action. Healing Earth is dedicated to the idea that these are complimentary and necessary ways to understand, respect, and heal the natural world. Most of us will never be astronauts, awed by the view of Earth from space. Nevertheless, we can draw on their experience, our own experience of nature, and the experiences of countless others, to enliven our imagination of a healed Earth and encourage us to work toward that goal.
Questions to Consider
- Imagine living your day-to-day life with keen attention to the health of the nature in your community. What actions that you currently perform would fit in this life? What actions that you currently perform would need to be changed?
- Think of a time in your life when you were deeply moved by some feature of nature. Imagine this feature of nature damaged or destroyed by human behavior. How would you use the four action steps to repair this damage?
Chapter Structure and Website Features
Healing Earth introduces you to the study of environmental science in six chapters covering 1) biodiversity, 2) natural resources, 3) energy, 4) water, 5) food systems, and 6) climate change. In addition to the chapters, the website has several informational features as well as opportunities for you to get involved in the development of Healing Earth itself.
Chapter Structure and Icons
Each chapter has an identical structure, following the sequence of science, ethics, spirituality, and action explained above. Below is an example, taken from Chapter Four: Water
Each chapter begins with a case study that raises the scientific, ethical, spiritual and action questions that are further explored in the chapter. The chapters then proceed through each of the four main sections.
You will note that the Water and Action section has two parts: Regional Reports and Action Ideas. In the Regional Reports section, current news stories and organization reports are given from six regions of the world: Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, South America, and South Asia. These are important to broaden your awareness of environmental problems confronting people around the world and make connections to problems in your own community. This awareness will sharpen your ability to see problems and imagine actions you can take.
The Action Ideas section offers suggestions for environmental projects you might undertake in your own community. The section will be periodically updated to include actions students have taken around the world.
Next, a Reflection Questions and Explorations section assists you in thinking further about the chapter topic and prepares you for chapter quizzes or tests that your teacher may assign.
A final Additional Resources section appears after each chapter’s action section and contains some of the most important and current books, articles, and websites related to the chapter topic.
Healing Earth uses several icons to direct your attention to important supplemental readings and videos, text, additional resources, and connections with other sections of the text. Become familiar with the appearance of the following icons so that you can recognize them throughout the text.
Closer Look icons appear in orange margin boxes containing
the image of a microscope or a video camera. These icons
direct you to supplemental readings or videos which contain
important information that is relevant to the current subject matter.
Inspired People contains pictures and information about
individuals who have made a difference in environmental
science, ethics or spirituality on the local, national, or international level.
Looking Ahead icons appear in blue margin boxes and are
marked by the image of a person looking through a telescope.
These icons point to connections between the current subject
matter and content that appears later in the text.
Looking Back icons appear in blue margin boxes and are
marked by a swivel arrow. These icons point to connections
between the current subject matter and content that appeared
earlier in the text.
Questions which help you more fully understand the subject matter are posed and answered within Question Icons throughout the text. Question Icons contain a question mark inside an orange margin box.
Science Figures In the Science section of each chapter there are descriptive images, such as graphs, charts, formulas, etc. that accompany the text. These images are marked by figure numbers.
Healing Earth has several tabs on the opening page that offer additional learning tools.
Notice that, in addition to English, you will have the option of reading Healing Earth in Spanish or French when these translations are completed. Other language translations will be coming in future months.
Also, check the bulletin board at the bottom of the opening page to see current Healing Earth news--who is using Healing Earth around the world, event announcements, and dates for live lectures coming up through the Healing Earth website.
Participating in the Healing Earth Community
Healing Earth is a living textbook in environmental science. Chapter materials will be updated by Healing Earth editors and authors on a regular basis. You are always invited to bring your own ideas and projects to Healing Earth by emailing one of the Healing Earth authors or visiting the Healing Earth Facebook page and communicating with us. We invite all of you--teachers, students, adult learners--to link your imagination with ours and become members of the Healing Earth community.
Now it is time to open the Healing Earth chapters and magnify your awe for our magnificent planet. Feed your imagination for a healed planet with the fruit of scientific discovery, ethical evaluation, and spiritual reflection. Then join the Healing Earth authors, fellow students, and teachers from around the world in acting for the good of the planet Earth.